What Is Viscose?

What Is Viscose?

Written by Nectarsleep editorial team

Last Updated on Jun 14, 2022

In this article:

    Viscose is a popular semi-natural fiber used to make dresses, upholstery, carpets, and even your bedding. If you haven’t heard of it before, you must have heard of the name of rayon. Both the terms are used interchangeably. But what is viscose? All the details are served ahead. Keep reading to learn about this fabric that is ruling the market.

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    What Is Viscose?

    Viscose is a semi-synthetic material that comes from natural sources of regenerated cellulose. But what is viscose made of? It comes from wood pulp. The pulp gets spun into yarns to transform it into a fabric. 

    You might think viscose is eco-friendly since it is manufactured from plants. However, it is made by treating cellulose with chemicals. Viscose comes with a lustrous finish like silk and feels as soft as cotton. Interestingly, it was developed as a cheaper alternative to natural fibers.

    You can trace the story of viscose to nineteenth-century Europe. The French scientist and industrialist Chardonnet had invented the first commercial viscose material. However, it was highly flammable. So, it didn’t survive in the market for long, and there was a search for a safer material. 

    It was in 1892, that a group of three British scientists discovered and patented the production process. And the first commercial production started not before 1905. 

    But, what is rayon made of?

    Trees and plants from which viscose rayon is derived 

    Viscose rayon is derived from the wood pulp of eucalyptus trees. However, to curate this fabric, any plant can be used, such as

    • Cotton
    • Soy
    • Bamboo
    • Beech 
    • Pine 
    • Sugar Cane 

    Characteristics of Viscose 

    Viscose has the properties of both cotton and silk. Some of them include;

    Lightweight and Soft

    While it is as soft as cotton, it has a shiny appearance like silk. Moreover, it is super lightweight. So, even during summers, you can wear it easily. 

    Breathable and Absorbent 

    You can manage the fabric easily. The reason for the popularity of viscose is its breathability. It does not trap heat and allows air to pass. Apart from that, it also absorbs your sweat like a pro. So, you will stay cool on a hot summer day.

    Process of Viscose Production

    The steps involved in the viscose production process include; 

    Steeping: This is the first step where the plant is chipped to get the wood pulp. The pulp is then dissolved in chemicals to form a brown solution, followed by bleaching and cleaning. Now, it is treated with sodium disulfide, and sodium hydroxide alkali cellulose is generated in this step. 

    Shredding: In the second step, alkali cellulose is converted into fluffy material using machines. The solution is passed through a device called a spinneret. It leads pulp fabric to the formation of filaments.

    Aging: After the shredding process, the material obtained is transferred into a steel container and stored at a specific temperature to achieve the right viscosity. 

    Xanthation: In this step, cellulose xanthate is formed. 

    Ripening: Finally, the viscose is allowed to ripen for a certain period.

    Preparation of spinning solution: Chemicals are then added to cellulose xanthate to make it soft and strong. 

    Filtration: Any undissolved material is flushed out in this step.

    Spinning: The final step leads to the viscose solution in diameters between 0.05-0.1 mm. The filaments are spun into viscose yarns which can be woven into the fabric.

    Is viscose environment-friendly fabric?

    While it seems eco-friendly since it is taken from plants, viscose is not good for the environment. The plant cellulose taken from the wood pulp is made with chemicals. In fact, the solvents used during the process are harmful to both humans and the environment. Also, viscose production leads to deforestation as you require lots of wood pulp to create the fabric. 

    Viscose Fabric: Pros and Cons

    Just like anything else, viscose has its set of  benefits of viscose and drawbacks. Let us look.

    Pros 

    • It is super lightweight and airy since it has natural origins. 
    • Its absorbent nature makes it perfect for you if you sweat a lot. 
    • Viscose is a breathable fabric suitable for summers. 
    • It retains its color even after endless washes.
    •  It can drape well like silk. 
    • It is inexpensive compared to cotton and silk.

    Cons 

    • This rayon fiber shrinks after washing. 
    • It is delicate, and the fibers may break apart if you handle it roughly. 
    • I am drying it in the sunlight for long hampers the fabric quality. 
    • Viscose retains dyes. So, you will have a tough time removing stains from it. 
    • It is not eco-friendly and sustainable since many chemicals are used while manufacturing.

    Uses of Viscose Rayon

    What is viscose used for? It is a versatile fabric and has a wide range of uses. You can find it everywhere, from clothes to bedding.

    Clothes 

    You can wear clothes made from viscose rayon material on formal and informal occasions. They are super comfortable and also have a lustrous touch. Dresses made of viscose are available in multiple colors and shades since it retains dyes very well. 

    Sheets 

    Viscose sheets can be your perfect companion if you sweat a lot while sleeping. It will wick off all the sweat keeping you cool. Furthermore, it doesn’t trap your body heat. 

    Curtains and Window Drape 

    The silky smoothness makes viscose an excellent choice for curtains. They can give your room an enthralling look that will capture people’s attention. 

    Mattress Flame Retardants

    The  bedding materials contain flame retardants to ensure that they meet the flammability standards, and rayon is used for the same. It easily passes the flammability tests, and the manufacturing cost is low.

    Cellophane 

    You have seen those thin transparent sheets used in food packaging. Yes, they are made of viscose. Its low permeability keeps air, water, and microbes away.

    Other Types of Rayon

    Apart from viscose, modal fiber and lyocell are the two other types of rayon. 

    Now, you might wonder what the difference is between rayon and viscose. But viscose is a type of rayon. All the rayon fibers are manufactured from wood pulp. However, there is a difference in the process.

    Modal and viscose are manufactured similarly. Only the former is stretched while spinning. So, the fibers are longer and more delicate. Lyocell has a different manufacturing process. Unlike the other two, it gets treated with an organic compound. Therefore, it is eco-friendly.

    Viscose Rayon vs Silk 

    Take a look at the comparison chart between Viscose Rayon vs Silk fabric!

    Characteristics Viscose RayonSilk
    FeelSoft and silkySmooth and soft
    Breathability Super breathable and allows air to passLess breathable than viscose-rayon
    PriceCheaper alternative to silkWay more expensive than viscose-rayon
    ShineLustrous More lustrous and reflects light
    CleaningBest when hand washed; avoid machine washingDry cleaning is the best option
    Eco-friendliness Not eco-friendly as it contains chemicalsBeing a natural fiber, it is eco-friendly

    Viscose Rayon vs Cotton

    Viscose rayon feels as soft as cotton. However, a comparison between rayon vs cotton will reveal their differences.

    CharacteristicsViscose RayonCotton
    OriginMade from wood pulp or celluloseMade from natural cotton fibers
    Feel and Breathability Soft and breathable; wicks away moistureSuper soft and breathable; doesn’t wick away moisture
    Versatility Versatile fabric that can be blended with any materialEqually versatile and can be mixed with other fabrics
    WashingHand washing viscose is recommended to maintain the qualityMachine washable
    Eco-friendlinessContains chemicals and hence is not eco-friendlyEco-friendly as it is a natural fiber

    Viscose Rayon vs Polyester

    A comparison of rayon vs polyester will reveal the similarities and differences between these two types of fabric materials.

    CharacteristicsViscose RayonPolyester
    OriginMade from cellulose treated with chemicals; thus it’s semi-syntheticMade from petroleum treated with chemicals
    PillingMore likely to peel than polyesterResistant to pilling
    WrinklingMay wrinkle after repeated washingDoes not wrinkle even after multiple washes
    Moisture-wickingNot ads moisture-wicking as polyesterWicks away moisture like a pro

    Viscose Rayon vs Modal

    Both of them are types of rayon. So, they are made from the same material i.e. wood pulp. However, they don’t feel like the same fabric material. That is because their manufacturing processes are slightly different.

    Characteristics Viscose RayonModal
    BreathabilityLess breathable than modal More breathable because they are stretched during the manufacturing process
    Eco-friendlinessNot eco-friendly since it contains chemicalsMore eco-friendly because the concentration of sodium hydroxide is less

    How to Care for Viscose Rayon

    Viscose fabric care is not easy. You have to be careful and follow all the instructions of the manufacturer. 

    • Always go for dry cleaning if you want the fabric to last long. 
    • Do not opt for spot treatment as it may lead to stubborn stains. 
    • Viscose washing is not recommended. 
    • Putting it in a machine might make it rough. 
    • If you have to wash it, hand washing in cold water is the best option. 
    • Make sure you use a mild cleaning agent. 
    • Do not squeeze the fabric. That might stretch it. 
    • While drying, it is better to avoid direct sunlight for long hours.

    Now you know all about viscose rayon and how it fares in comparison to other fabrics like cotton and silk. Hope this helps! 

    This article is for informational purposes and should not replace advice from your doctor or other medical professional.
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However, it can be stretched when combined with other materials.\u003C\/p\u003E"},{"_id":"586d32c","title":"Does viscose shrink in the wash?","content":"\u003Cp\u003EViscose can shrink in the wash. However, the chances of shrinking are reduced if you turn the material inside out.\u003C\/p\u003E"},{"_id":"441bd78","title":"How to iron viscose?","content":"\u003Cp\u003EMake sure you set the iron to steam and spray some water over the material. Then place it inside out. Otherwise, the heat can damage the viscose lining.\u003C\/p\u003E"},{"_id":"2b8fddc","title":"Is viscose a synthetic fabric or natural fabric? \n","content":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cb\u003EViscose fiber\u003C\/b\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"font-weight: 400;\"\u003E is a type of rayon. Now, is rayon a natural fiber or a \u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cb\u003Esynthetic fiber\u003C\/b\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"font-weight: 400;\"\u003E? The answer is it\u2019s semi-natural. 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